GINKGO BILOBA EXTRACT EPG 246 (EP)
GINKGO BILOBA ETHANOL EXTRACT 246 E
Linnea extracts and manufactures Ginkgo Biloba as a botanical ingredient for pharmaceutical and dietary supplement purposes.
Name of the plant Ginkgo biloba
Part of the plant used Leaves
Ginkgo biloba trees have been cultivated in the Far East ever since ancient times, its medicinal use dating back to 2800 BC. The traditional Chinese uses of Ginkgo include the relief of asthma and cough, and the support of brain functions. Ginkgo is now widely used in the world to treat conditions such as brain dysfunction, memory loss and concentration disorders, dizziness and tinnitus. It is used also as antiaging agent in cosmetic formulations.
The Ginkgo biloba tree has a remarkable resistance to insect damage, viral and bacterial infection, as well as modern-day chemical pollution. It is native to China, Japan and Korea where the biloba tree has traditionally been planted in temple compounds, in the vicinity of shrines and castles and venerated as a holy object of worship and ritual. A single tree can live for more than 1000 years. In China, Ginkgo trees aged 100 years or more are protected and preserved through government regulations.
Ginkgo plantations fully owned and controlled by the company's shareholders were established 20 years ago in the US, France and China to secure a constant supply of high quality raw material. The plants are cultivated in rows according to the rules of GAP (Good Agricultural Practices), thus ensuring full process traceability.
Ginkgo leaves are harvested green depending on local climatic conditions. At a dehydration plant, fresh leaves are dried and packed into bales. The entire procurement process is carried out in collaboration with the group and regular audits are conducted on the plantations.
|Name of the plant
||Ginkgo biloba L.
|Part of the plant used
||Ginkgo Dry Extract, Refined and Quantified
||Light brown amorphous powder
||Soluble in ethanol/water (at 4% w/v in ethanol/water 55:45 v/v)
||Preserve in tight container, protected from light, heat and humidity.
The leaves of Ginkgo contain unique flavonoids and terpenes not found in any other plants. The active substances of Ginkgo extract have been found to have a regulating effect on the entire vascular system of veins, arteries and capillaries by a number of different mechanisms.  The inhibition of PAF causes vascular contraction and improves venous tone by increasing cardiac contractility and coronary blood flow, thus resulting in an increase in cAMP levels and catecholamine release. 
Ginkgo leaves are proven to increase cerebral and peripheral blood flow microcirculation and reduce vascular permeability through their potent relaxing effect on vascular smooth muscle [2-4]. The inhibitory effect on the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT, an enzyme which breaks down adrenergic transmitters) helps to reverse the decline in brain alpha-adrenoceptor activity that occurs with aging .
Ginkgo's flavonoids are recognized for their antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that protect neurons and retinal tissue against oxidative stress and injury following ischemic episodes [5-6].
Common Applications and Evidence
Its 350 million year history and the results of numerous in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Ginkgo extract has various pharmacological properties and interesting potential in the management of a range of conditions. Ginkgo promotes the metabolism of brain cells and sensory neurons and may be used to control the levels of various neurotransmitters in the brain, thus helping to counteract memory loss, depression, dementia and lack of alertness.
Ginkgo biloba also has a widely accepted activity in regulating the blood flow to the brain, legs and other extremities and may therefore be used to counteract a number of conditions such as vascular insufficiency, vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, numbness, tingling, concentration disorders and intermittent claudication . Ginkgo is indicated for the prevention of aging processes that reduce energy production in the nerve cells such us the formation of the harmful-amyloid proteins involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease [6-7-8].
The extract is used in several cosmeceutical formulations for its anti aging, free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant properties. It helps to eliminate toxins and strengthen the skin's defences, improving the dermal microcirculation and stimulating lymphatic drainage. In a wide range of studies, Ginkgo extract has been found to be effective in slowing down disease progression and improving symptoms in cognitive diseases and vasculopathy.
Memory and cognitive impairment
Numerous studies suggest that Ginkgo extract should be used in the treatment of elderly people with cognitive and memory impairment. A 2006 study has confirmed the efficacy of Ginkgo in significantly improving the cognitive function of the patients treated.  In healthy individuals an almost immediate improvement in attention has been observed with a peak at 2.5 hours after intake [9-10].
The efficacy of Ginkgo extract in the treatment and prevention of dementia has been confirmed recently in several meta-analyses of available studies. Summarizing the results of the studies, Dr. Reiner Kaschel, clinical neuropsychologist at the University of Osnabruck, concluded: "Meta-analyses of the data by independent scientists consistently substantiate the efficacy of Ginkgo extract at the onset of cognitive decline." [12-13-14] New results in dementia research have shown that long-term intake of Ginkgo biloba extract protects against Alzheimer's disease. French scientists have demonstrated that taking 240 mg of Ginkgo extract per day regularly over a period of at least 4 years reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by nearly 50% .
The common use if Ginkgo leaves in the treatment of Tinnitus is supported by several trials conducted on patients which experienced an improvement in or disappearance of symptoms in 70 days as against 119 days in those receiving the placebo . Monotherapy with Ginkgo has been found to be efficient and tolerable in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss and subjective tinnitus of vascular origin, it effectively improves the hearing function and has its most pronounced beneficial effect on subjective tinnitus. .
The intermittent claudication is caused by peripheral vascular disease. The therapeutic benefit of Ginkgo in terms of pain relief was demonstrated in two placebo controlled trials conducted on a total of 190 patients, which showed an improvement in the walking distance and a decrease in the pain suffered by patients with peripheral vascular disease [18-19].
Free radical scavenging and anti-aging activity
In several in vivo and in vitro studies Ginkgo extract has been found to provide protection against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and the aging process. As demonstrated in a recent study Ginkgo cosmetic formulations present protective effect against UV-induced damage and skin aging whith good skin penetration and retention properties . A number of studies have shown that Ginkgo extract also has a protective effect on neurons in ischemic conditions and reduces atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation. It has also been found to play a beneficial role in delaying further ischemic events in high-risk patients [21-22-23].
- Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) From chemistry to the clinic. Urban & Fischer Verlag 2003 De Feudis FV. In: Prinz JP.
- Inhibition of type 4 phosphodiesterase by rolipram and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) decreases agonist-induced rises in internal calcium in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:e34-e40. Campos-Toimil M, Lugnier C, Droy-Lefaix M, et al.
- Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis. Alt Ther 2001;7:105. Kudolo G.
- Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:668-78 Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Reiwel N, et al.
- Actions of Ginkgo biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of conditions involving cerebral hypoxia. Life Sci 2000;67:1389-96. Logani S, Chen MC, Tran T, et al.
- 6. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1409-15 Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA.
- Pharmacological studies supporting the therapeutic use of Ginkgo biloba extract for Alzheimer's disease. J. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S8-14. Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein.
- Ginkgo biloba Am Fam Physician. 2003 Sep1;68(5):923-926. Victor S. Sierpina, M.D., Bernd Wollschlaeger, M.D., Mark Blumenthal.
- The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Sep;151(4):416-23. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA.
- Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology 179 (2): 437–46. 2005 Elsabagh, Sarah; Hartley, David E.; Ali, Osama; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; File, Sandra E.
- Experience in clinical use of tanakan in the treatment of the syndrome of mild cognitive impairment. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2006;106(10):42-6 Gavrilova SI, Fedorova IaB, Roshchina IF, Kolykhalov IV
- Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis..BMC Geriatr. 2010 Mar 17;10:14. Weinmann S, Roll S, Schwarzbach C, Vauth C, Willich SN.
- Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement--a selective review in search of differential effects. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jul;24(5):345-70. Kaschel R.
- Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms are effect modifiers in Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761®) treatment of dementia with neuropsychiatric features. Retrospective data analyses of a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Sci. 2010 Dec 15;299(1-2):184-7. Epub 2010 Sep 15. Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N.
- GuidAge study: a 5-year double blind, randomised trial of EGb 761 for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in elderly subjects with memory complaints. i. rationale, design and baseline data. GuidAge study GROUP. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2008 Aug;5(4):406-15. Andrieu S, Ousset PJ, Coley N, Ouzid M, Mathiex-Fortunet H, Vellas B;
- Multicenter randomized double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract. Presse Med 1986;15:1562-4. Meyer B.
- Assessment of efficacy and tolerance of tanakan during treatment of sensorineural bradyacuasia and tympanophonia. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2009;(2):40-2. Kunel'skaia NL, Levina IuV, Krasiuk AA, Doronina OM
- Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication—a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. Vasa 1998;27:106-10. Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U.
- 6-Month double-blind randomised clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba extract versus placebo in two parallel groups in patients suffering from peripheral arterial insufficiency. Arzneimittelforschung 1984;34:716-20. Bauer U.
- Skin penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin from green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;22(6):299-304. Epub 2009 Sep 25. dal Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM, Marty JP. 21. Heme oxygenase 1, beneficial role in permanent ischemic stroke and in Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) neuroprotection. Neuroscience. 2011 Apr 28;180:248-55. Shah ZA, Nada SE, Doré S.
- Reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation and size by Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in cardiovascular high-risk patients. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jun;192(2):438-44. Rodríguez M, Ringstad L, Schäfer P, Just S, Hofer HW, Malmsten M, Siegel G.
- Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in arteriosclerosis prophylaxis. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):288-94. Siegel G, Schäfer P, Winkler K, Malmsten M.